Identifying Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors Associated with Early-Onset Dementia: A Case-Control Study

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Maham Zaidi
Sara Mumtaz


Background: Early-onset dementia (EOD) poses significant challenges due to its complex etiology involving both environmental and genetic factors. Identifying how these factors contribute to EOD can enhance understanding and aid in developing targeted interventions.

Objective: To assess the impact of environmental exposures on individuals with a genetic predisposition to EOD over a period of two months, comparing the effects against a control group with no such exposures.

Methods: This case-control study involved 92 participants divided into two groups (InterventionGroup1 and ControlGroup2) with 46 individuals each, comprising 28 males and 18 females in InterventionGroup1 and 32 males and 14 females in ControlGroup2. Baseline and post-intervention assessments were conducted to measure Body Mass Index (BMI), the prevalence of EOD, and Quality of Life (QoL). Genetic screening for known dementia markers was performed pre-study to ensure comparable genetic risk across groups. The intervention consisted of specific environmental exposures, including dietary changes and exposure to non-toxic chemicals hypothesized to affect cognitive function.

Results: After two months, ControlGroup2 exhibited a significant reduction in BMI (from 26.0 ± 2.8 to 25.5 ± 2.7, p=0.04) and an improvement in QoL scores (from 75 ± 12 to 78 ± 11, p=0.02). In contrast, InterventionGroup1 showed a slight increase in BMI (from 27.5 ± 3.2 to 28.0 ± 3.3) and a rise in EOD prevalence from 4.35% to 6.52%. No significant changes were observed in the QoL for InterventionGroup1.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that environmental interventions may not uniformly benefit individuals with a genetic predisposition to early-onset dementia and that less invasive approaches might be more effective. The study highlights the need for personalized interventions based on genetic and environmental risk assessments.

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Author Biographies

Abdullah, Advance Physiotherapy Centre, Quetta Pakistan

Advance Physiotherapy Centre, Quetta Pakistan

Maham Zaidi, Senior Physiotherapist, Indus Hospital Bedian, Pakistan

Senior Physiotherapist, Indus Hospital Bedian, Pakistan

Sara Mumtaz, Chester University, UK.

Chester University, UK.